Trimethylglycine Is a molecule that, structurally, is the amino acid Glycine with 3 methyl groups attached to it. It’s known as a betaine molecule, but since it was the very first dietary betaine found and it’s the most famous molecule referred to as a betaine, the terms trimethylglycine and betaine are used. The key mechanisms of betaine are its use as a methyl donor, in which it either directly donates a methyl group to decrease homocysteine into L methionine or it increases bodily levels of S-Adenosyl-Methionine or active folic acid molecules, and those two may then go on to donate methyl groups to others portions of the human body.
Due to this, supplementation of betaine has the ability to indirectly encourage whole body methylation, also directly encourage a reduction in homocysteine which is an osmolyte a molecule which regulates water balance in cells. Betaine can directly methylate. It also indirectly affects folic acid and SAMe metabolic process to encourage whole body methylation. While looking at the human evidence at this moment in time, it seems that betaine is powerful and reliable for reducing concentrations when taken daily at 3g or more. A single dose of betaine reduces homocysteine levels, which remain suppressed so long as supplementation has been continued. Betaine has been proven to decrease homocysteine by ten percent in persons with ordinary or by 20-40% in individuals with elevated homocysteine levels.
Homocysteine is known to be elevated in people with cardiovascular health difficulties and is a biomarker of cardiovascular complications. Correlation doesn’t imply causation, but so it isn’t apparent whether homocysteine is an indicator of issues or might promote cardiovascular dysfunction. It’s thought that decreasing homocysteine is protective of the heart, but a direct connection between betaine supplement and cardiovascular protection in humans hasn’t yet been established. Elsewhere, even though the evidence is a little confusing at this time betaine can have a role in treating liver along with the associated liver fibrosis when taken at high doses. In reference to health, betaine shows the most promise for liver and cardioprotection. Theoretically, it ought to be extremely protective, but studies directly assessing links between betaine supplementation and improved health biomarkers don’t exist.
Lastly, betaine has been advocated as a performance-enhancing chemical, although with devastating results. When taken at 1.25g twice daily, betaine has at times been connected to increased power output and minor increases in workout endurance and volume. The overall effect size or how much betaine benefits the topic appear to be quite modest, and in this moment in time all studies finding benefit with betaine supplementation were associated with Danisco a manufacturer of betaine. The advantage of TMG to physical exercise, even when assumed to be present, might have little to no technical relevance because serum betaine is increased to a comparable degree with 1g betaine as it’s with 1g of Choline supplementation, and the latter might have some centrally acting advantages into working out while possibly being more economical.
The theory that fits the most with the observed advantages to physical performance is that a mechanism not only able to be replicated with choline as mentioned earlier but is a mechanism of action of Creatine, a lonely research to evaluate the combination failed to discover an additive effect of betaine on creatine’s benefits.
Recommended dosage, active quantities, other specifics
The lowest active dose of betaine is 500mg taken through the course of the day. That is a dose which seems to be minimally active in reducing homocysteine and can be healthful to take, and doses of this up to 1,000 milligrams appear to be in the selection of being minimally active, but additionally able to be accumulated through food consumption.
The typical doses which seen to be utilized for dietary supplementation would be in the assortment of 2,500-6,000 mg taken in two divided doses each day, and carrying said doses alongside a meal doesn’t seem to be required. This is the dosage range that reduces homocysteine, also will be the dosage range where advantages to physical performance were noted. Studies on fibrosis and liver fat, and in some settings on homocysteine reduction where the topic seems to be resistant to the 6g dose, the dosage may be increased up to 20g daily, this does appear to be moderately well tolerated.
Hardening of the arteries
Internal ear infection
Protecting the liver